In 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation created the ARISE project, managed by JSI, to assemble the evidence on what drives improvements in RI performance in Africa. To amass such evidence, ARISE conducted in-depth, mixed methods comparative case studies in Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Ghana. It employed an assets-based approach to identify common drivers of improvements in RI performance at the district level, describe the pathways by which they improve coverage, and identify contextual factors affecting performance.
This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts.