An integrated supply chain is cost-effective, responsive, and reliable, and helps reduce stockouts. An integrated supply chain links all the actors involved in managing health products into one cohesive supply chain management organization. Countries typically move through an evolution process to achieve an integrated public health supply chain. While every country is different, the path to integration usually evolves, over time, through three sequential phases: (1) the ad hoc phase, where stakeholders have little common understanding of what the supply chain looks like; (2) the organized phase, where roles and procedures for basic logistics functions are clarified and sufficient financial and human resources are mobilized; and (3) the integrated phase, where people, functions, levels, and entities in the supply chain are linked and managed through an interconnected supply chain organization
eHealth foundation actions build an enabling environment for the use of ICT for health. These include supportive eHealth policy, legal and ethical frameworks; adequate funding from various sources; infrastructure development; and developing the capacity of the health work force through training. eHealth applications surveyed in 2009 include telemedicine (the delivery of health care services using ICT where distance is a barrier to care); mHealth (the use of mobile devices in delivering health care services); and eLearning (use of ICT for learning).