Country health officials and donors have increasingly realized that resources allocated to health will not achieve their intended results without attention to governance. Particularly as global programs inject huge amounts of funding targeting specific diseases, weaknesses in health system governance threaten to undermine the effective utilization of the funds. Corruption is perhaps the most dramatic governance-related threat, but in addition poor accountability and transparency, weak incentives for responsiveness and performance, and limited engagement of citizens in health affairs contribute to low levels of system effectiveness as well.
Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of human beings based on their physical and/or behavioural characteristics (Bio = life + Metrics = measurement). These characteristics present some specific properties such as, uniqueness and persistency, making them suitable for this kind of task. Examples of physical characteristics include among others: fingerprints, face, iris, retina, and hand geometry. On the other hand, examples of behavioural characteristics include: signature, voice, keystroke dynamics, etc. The purpose of this book is to serve as an introductory source of information for people interested in Biometrics.
The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. It is therefore intended that by 2011, this Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems (the “HMN Framework”) will be the universally accepted standard for guiding the collection, reporting and use of health information by all developing countries and global agencies.
The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. HMN is grateful for funding support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), which also serves as host to HMN.
The potential for misidentification of trial participants, leading to misclassification, is a threat to the integrity of randomized controlled trials. The correct identification of study subjects in large trials over prolonged periods is of vital importance to those conducting clinical trials. Currently used means of identifying study participants, such as identity cards and records of name, address, name of household head and demographic characteristics, require large numbers of well-trained personnel, and still leave room for uncertainty.
Health information systems are spreading globally which promote health and human prosperity. Globalization of health informatics infrastructures is needed to have significant growth in improving quality and capacity of healthcare sector in developing countries. At present the health information infrastructure remains inadequate to meet the needs of rising population. Poverty and technological implementations are major barriers in the lesser-developed countries. Health care can be transformed and health status of population improved by eliminating barriers and implementing health informatics in developing countries.
The Vision 2030, Zambia's first ever written long-term plan, expresses the aspirations of the Zambian people to be accomplished by the year 2030. It articulates the appropriate national and sector goals to meet people’s aspirations. It is based on policy-oriented research on key national strategic issues and on a process of discussion and dialogue with the private sector, civil society and the general citizenry on the long-term goals and future of Zambia.
Serosurveys that measure tetanus antitoxin can complement immunization coverage surveys to allow evaluation of immunization services in developing countries. Measurement of IgG tetanus antitoxin in oral fluid was investigated as a practical and noninvasive alternative to and correlate of serum antibodies.
Historically, the introduction of new vaccines in developing countries has been delayed due to lack of a coordinated effort to address both demand and supply issues. The introduction of vaccines in developing countries has been plagued by a vicious cycle of uncertain demand leading to limited supply, which keeps prices relatively high and, in turn, further increases the uncertainty of demand. The Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan (PneumoADIP) is an innovative approach designed to overcome this vicious cycle and to help assure an affordable, sustainable supply of new pneumococcal vaccines for developing countries. Translational research will play an important role in achieving the goals of PneumoADIP by establishing the burden of pneumococcal disease and the value of pneumococcal vaccines at global and country levels. If successful, PneumoADIP will reduce the uncertainty of demand, allow appropriate planning of supply, and achieve adequate and affordable availability of product for the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines. This model may provide a useful example and valuable lessons for how a successful public-private partnership can improve global health.