The purpose of this Guide is to stimulate interest in improving and sustaining high levels of immunisation coverage in all districts and to give health program managers (governmental and non-governmental), supervisors and health workers practical information about the RED approach. The Guide is intended for adaptation and use by national immunization programmes, as one of several resources that can be used to introduce district health teams and immunisation partners to the RED approach. Once adapted, it can also be used by district health teams and health workers as a quick reference to the five RED components and core monitoring indicators. Another important use for the Guide may be in explaining RED to local officials and other potential supporters of immunisation and PHC services.
This paper reviews the experience of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in introducing hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in the poorest countries, and explores how financing for immunization has changed since GAVI Fund resources were made available during its first wave of support between 2000 and 2006. The analysis of Financial Sustainability Plans in 50 countries allowed for some of the original funding assumptions of the GAVI approach to be tested against the realities in a wide set of countries, and to highlight implications for future immunization efforts. While the initial GAVI experience with financial sustainability has proved successful through the development of plans, and many countries have been able to both introduce new vaccines and mobilize additional financing for immunization, for future GAVI supported vaccine introduction, some country co-financing of these will be needed upfront for the approach to be more sustainable.
Globally, immunization services have been the center of renewed interest with increased funding to improve services, acceleration of the introduction of new vaccines, and the development of a health systems approach to improve vaccine delivery. Much of the credit for the increased attention is due to the work of the GAVI Alliance and to new funding streams. If routine immunization programs are to take full advantage of the newly available resources, managers need to understand the range of proven strategies and approaches to deliver vaccines to reduce the incidence of diseases. In this paper, we present strategies that may be used at the sub-national level to improve routine immunization programs.
Country health officials and donors have increasingly realized that resources allocated to health will not achieve their intended results without attention to governance. Particularly as global programs inject huge amounts of funding targeting specific diseases, weaknesses in health system governance threaten to undermine the effective utilization of the funds. Corruption is perhaps the most dramatic governance-related threat, but in addition poor accountability and transparency, weak incentives for responsiveness and performance, and limited engagement of citizens in health affairs contribute to low levels of system effectiveness as well.
Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of human beings based on their physical and/or behavioural characteristics (Bio = life + Metrics = measurement). These characteristics present some specific properties such as, uniqueness and persistency, making them suitable for this kind of task. Examples of physical characteristics include among others: fingerprints, face, iris, retina, and hand geometry. On the other hand, examples of behavioural characteristics include: signature, voice, keystroke dynamics, etc. The purpose of this book is to serve as an introductory source of information for people interested in Biometrics.
The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. It is therefore intended that by 2011, this Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems (the “HMN Framework”) will be the universally accepted standard for guiding the collection, reporting and use of health information by all developing countries and global agencies.
The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. HMN is grateful for funding support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), which also serves as host to HMN.
The potential for misidentification of trial participants, leading to misclassification, is a threat to the integrity of randomized controlled trials. The correct identification of study subjects in large trials over prolonged periods is of vital importance to those conducting clinical trials. Currently used means of identifying study participants, such as identity cards and records of name, address, name of household head and demographic characteristics, require large numbers of well-trained personnel, and still leave room for uncertainty.
Health information systems are spreading globally which promote health and human prosperity. Globalization of health informatics infrastructures is needed to have significant growth in improving quality and capacity of healthcare sector in developing countries. At present the health information infrastructure remains inadequate to meet the needs of rising population. Poverty and technological implementations are major barriers in the lesser-developed countries. Health care can be transformed and health status of population improved by eliminating barriers and implementing health informatics in developing countries.